Wednesday, March 27, 2013

Christ Died on Nisan 14, the Day of "Preparation"

Definitions of Evening

Because I am a Gentile raised on the concepts of a Roman day and the Gregorian calendar, I have had a difficult time understanding biblical days. Since Elohim created light out of darkness, the first (and subsequent) days last from "evening" to "morning" (Genesis 1:5ff). Yeshua would have considered a 24 hour "day" (yom in Hebrew, and hemera in Greek) to last from dusk to dusk; half of which would have been daylight (John 11:9). I thought and taught Yeshua ate Passover with his disciples and then was crucified on the afternoon of Nisan 14 on Passover day based on the following Scripture:

In the fourteenth [day] of the first month at even [is] the LORD's passover. And on the fifteenth day of the same month [is] the feast of unleavened bread to the LORD: seven days you must eat unleavened bread. (Lev. 23:5-6)

But I was wrong. The word "is" has been inserted by the translators. The 14th is the day of preparation for Passover during which the lambs are killed. All four gospels agree that Christ was crucified on Nisan 14 the day of "preparation" (Mat. 27:62; Mark 15:42; Luke 23:54; John 19:14, 31, 42), so that the Sanhedrin could get rid of Him before Passover.

I didn't understand the biblical words "even" and "evening" can mean a period of darkness or the hours prior to darkness (late afternoon). There is no Hebrew or Greek word which translates to "afternoon" (though natah is translated as such in Judges 19:8). So when I read the following passage, I thought the words "evening" and "night" were synonymous and described Nisan 14 as Passover followed by the first day of Unleavened Bread on the 15th; but I was wrong.

In the tenth day of this month they shall take to them every man a lamb . . . a lamb for an house: . . . And you shall keep it up until the fourteenth day of the same month: and the whole assembly of the congregation of Israel shall kill it in the evening ['ereb]. And they shall take of the blood, and strike it on the two side posts and on the upper door post of the houses, wherein they shall eat it. And they shall eat the flesh in that night [layil], roast with fire, and unleavened bread; and with bitter herbs they shall eat it. (Exodus 12:3-8)

"Evening" ['ereb] can include noon to 6pm. So the passover lambs were to be slaughtered during those hours on Nisan 14, and then roasted and eaten during the dark "night" [layil] of Nisan 15. Then it makes complete sense that Passover and the first day of Unleavened Bread both begin at dusk on Nisan 15.

Here is part of Clarke's Commentary on Exodus 12:6 . . .

"In the evening] beyn haarbayim, "between the two evenings." The Jews divided the day into morning and evening: till the sun passed the meridian all was morning or fore-noon; after that, all was afternoon or evening. Their first evening began just after twelve o'clock, and continued till sunset; their second evening began at sunset and continued till night; i.e., during the whole time of twilight; between twelve o'clock, therefore, and the termination of twilight, the passover was to be offered." {I will call the first evening "even" and the second evening "evening".}

Clarke's "second evening" was subdivided into four watches of three hours each: first watch 6-9pm (Lam. 2:19), second watch 9pm-midnight (Judges 7:19), third watch (Ex. 14:24), and the fourth watch (Mat. 14:25). So we have dealt with the Hebrew terms; on to the Greek terms.

A biblical day began after sun down [helios dumi] (Mark 1:32) and proceeded to "evening" [hespera] (Acts 4:3; 28:23); roughly 6pm to midnight. Night [nux] (Mark 14:30) was the period from midnight to dawn (Acts 20:11). The "rising of the sun" [anatello to helios] can also be translated "morning" [proi] (Mark 16:1-2) or "early" [bathus orthos] (Luke 24:1). Noon is mid-morning [mesohemera] (Acts 26:13) or [mesembria] (Acts 22:6). Clarke's "first evening", or "evening" or "even" [opsios] (Mark 15:42) is roughly noon to 6pm, and includes dusk (Mat. 16:2).

Day of Preparation

Nisan 14 was the day of preparation for Passover. Passover and the first day of Unleavened Bread began after dusk on Nisan 15.

Now the feast of unleavened bread drew near, which is called the Passover. . . . Then came the day of unleavened bread, when the passover must be killed. And he sent Peter and John, saying, Go and prepare us the passover, that we may eat. . . . And they went, and found as he had said to them: and they made ready the passover. [they cleaned out all leaven] And when the hour was come, he sat down, and the twelve apostles with him. And he said to them, With desire I have desired to eat this passover with you before I suffer: For I say to you, I will not any more eat thereof, until it be fulfilled in the kingdom of God. And he took the cup, and gave thanks, and said, Take this, and divide it among yourselves: For I say to you, I will not drink of the fruit of the vine, until the kingdom of God shall come. And he took bread, and gave thanks, and broke it, and gave to them, saying, This is my body which is given for you: this do in remembrance of me. Likewise also the cup after supper, saying, This cup is the new testament in my blood, which is shed for you (Luke 22:1-20)

Jesus desired to eat the Passover with them before He suffered, but instead He would become the Passover lamb who would be sacrificed for them, and He would not get to eat the Passover with them until its ultimate fulfillment in His kingdom. The phrase "last supper" is appropriate. It was not Passover because the disciples thought Judas might be buying something for the feast when he left that night (John 13:26-30), and if it was already the high sabbath of Passover, no one would be allowed to sell him anything.

Christ, our Perfect Sacrifice for our Sins

At the Temple in Jerusalem, the priests would be sacrificing lambs all day long, from dawn to dusk; but they also would have made the daily [tamid], perfectly whole [tamiym] sacrifice of a lamb for the morning and evening sacrifices. According to ancient Jewish sources outside the Bible, the morning offering of the Tamid took place at the "third hour" (9 am), and the evening offering took place at the "ninth hour" (3 pm) [Mishnah, Tamid 3:7; Josephus, Antiquities 14.4.3; Philo, Special Laws, 1:169].
Christ was nailed to the cross at the "third hour" (Mark 15:25), and died the "ninth hour" (Mark 13:34-39). During the two daily sacrifices, the priests would also have been reciting prayers for redemption, forgiveness, coming of Messiah, and eternal life (website).

Yeshua became our Passover lamb and "daily sacrifice" (Daniel 12:11), making further animal sacrifices unnecessary to approach Elohim, so the veil separating access to His Presence in the Holy of Holies was rent as well as graves (Mat. 27:50-53) because eternal life with our LORD had been purchased at a great price.

Christ Died on a Thursday

Now the LORD had prepared a great fish to swallow up Jonah. And Jonah was in the belly of the fish three days and three nights. (Jonah 1:17)

Then certain of the scribes and of the Pharisees answered, saying, Master, we would see a sign from you. But he answered and said to them, An evil and adulterous generation seeks after a sign; and there shall no sign be given to it, but the sign of the prophet Jonas: For as Jonas was three days and three nights in the whale's belly; so shall the Son of man be three days and three nights in the heart of the earth. The men of Nineveh shall rise in judgment with this generation, and shall condemn it: because they repented at the preaching of Jonas; and, behold, a greater than Jonas is here. (Matthew 12:38-41)

After all that about biblical days being from evening to morning, now we have a specific time-frame of three days and three nights; purposely beginning with daytime. The first chapter of Jonah does not provide a real time-frame except he slept and was awakened, and the men tried to row towards land before Jonah was tossed into the sea; but the LORD says it began during daylight. Those who ascribe to a Wednesday crucifixion for Yeshua begin with a "night" and then have him resurrect during the night of Sabbath (pre-dawn on Saturday, nullifying a First Fruits resurrection). Those who ascribe to a Friday crucifixion, can't squeeze in three days or three nights. Therefore a Thursday crucifixion works out the best, which was Nisan 14, 33 AD.

Happy Passover!

Monday, March 25, 2013

An Obama "abomination" on March 22, 2013

Though my end-time dates have gone by the wayside; the dates of others are being fulfilled.

March 12-13 was the new moon of Nisan 1 with a comet visible to the naked eye.
March 19 the new pope Francis officially took office (here). According to the prophecy of St. Malachy (wikipedia), he will be the last pope in office when King Jesus returns.

March 21st was the 10th day of Nisan when Jewish families were to take a lamb without blemish into their homes to sacrifice on the 14th.
March 21 Obama made his "peace, security, and prosperity" (I Thess. 5:3) speech (foxnewsinsider) to the young people in Jerusalem (video).

March 22 Obama may committed an "abomination of desolation" (video) by visiting the holocaust memorial and lying "never again" while he has strategically set up Israel to be destroyed.
As Obama left Israel, Prime Minister Netanyahu apologized to Turkey for the deaths of nine activists on the Gaza flotilla (JerusalemPost).
So it seems Obama influenced Netanyahu to the point the Jews have to apologize for defending themselves and their borders, and just let their enemies take both; which is just what the Muslims want.

Judas, the "son of perdition" (John 17:12) betrayed Jesus to the chief priests two days before Passover.
Obama, the "son of perdition" (II Thess. 2:3) betrayed Israel three days before Passover.

The date of March 22, 2013 was derived from subtracting 1260 days (42 x 30 day months) from Feast of Trumpets on October 3-4, 2016 according to Dewey Bruton at website. He originally came up with the dates in 2000, and placed them on youtube in 2005. I hope that he's right.
Later 119 ministries included the rare blood moon tetrads on Passover and Tabernacle in 2014-2015 video (though I don't recall the gentleman who first discovered their prophetic significance).

Monday, March 4, 2013

Sign of Comet at Nisan New Moon

New Spiritual Year and the “Breaker” (Pharez/Perseus) of Chains

Bear with me as I weave the significance of the “breaker” and the signs of the spiritual new year (Nisan 1) which is March 12th this year. Since the recent near flyby of an asteroid and the explosion of a meteor over Russia, people are more aware of sky objects.

And God said, Let there be lights in the firmament of the heaven to divide the day from the night; and let them be for signs, and for seasons, and for days, and years:” (Genesis 1:14)

And there shall be signs in the sun, and in the moon, and in the stars; and on the earth distress of nations, with perplexity; the sea and the waves roaring; Men's hearts failing them for fear, and for looking after those things which are coming on the earth: for the powers of heaven shall be shaken. And then shall they see the Son of man coming in a cloud with power and great glory. And when these things begin to come to pass, then look up, and lift up your heads; for your redemption draws near.” (Luke 21:25-28)

Comet C/2011 L4, which has been observed by Panoramic Survey Telescope and Rapid Response System (Pan-STARRS) and may be seen with the naked eye during the time of the new moon of Nisan, is a sign from our Creator. Pan-STARRS first viewed the comet between Ophiuchus and Libra on June 1, 2011 as a magnitude 19 comet (magnitude 1 is the brightest). Ophiuchus is the man holding back the serpent; and Libra is the scales of judgment.

The Path of Comet C/2011 L4

By January 1, 2012 Comet C/2011 L4 was travelling through the tail of Scorpius. Then it passed below Corona Astralis (“Southern Crown”) at the feet of Sagitarius. “Ptolemy listed 13 stars in Corona Australis.” ( There are 13 tribes of Israel: 11 of the sons of Jacob plus two of Joseph's sons, but only 12 tribes received land allotments in Israel since the LORD is the portion of the Levites. To me, this comet is a sign of our Lord Jesus coming to reign the Earth from Israel.

On February 19, 2013 Andrew Pearce observed the comet to be a magnitude 4.2 as Comet C/2011 L4 travelled between Indus and Microscopium; and then it went through Gruis (“the crane”) which used to be part of Pisces Austrinus. In the last days of February 2013, C/2011 L4 skirted Pisces Austrinus (“Southern Fish”) close to its brightest star Formalhaut which means “mouth of the [Southern] fish” in Arabic. The ichthys fish is a sign of Christianity.


Formalhaut photo taken by ESO

In about 2500 BC, Fomalhaut helped mark the location of the winter solstice, meaning that it helped to define the location in the sky where the sun crossed the meridian at noon on the first day of winter.” - Larry Sessions and Deborah Byrd (website)

Since Ussher placed Noah's flood in 2348 BC, I would suggest Fo(r)malhaut aligned the winter solstice closer to that date and continued such a position for a few hundred years.

Fomalhaut/Earthwork B in Mounds State Park near Anderson, Indiana lines up with the rising of the star Fomalhaut in the fall months, according to the Indiana Department of Natural Resources.” - Wikipedia

In early March Comet C/2011 L4 will continue its path beneath Aquarius and between it and Sculptor and Cetus (the sea monster). The water being poured out of the vessel held by Aquarius flows into the mouth of Pisces Austrinus. On the Spring Equinox (March 20, 2013), Comet C/2011 L4 will be in Pisces, the two fish banded together akin to the Jew and Gentile believers in Messiah.

Passover New Moon

The dark moon (conjunction) will occur on March 11, 2013, and become a crescent by March 13th; a period of three days. David and Jonathan discussed that “to morrow is the new moon” but the feasting began that evening, and David said his family celebrated a special annual feast that first evening of the dark new moon, which I suggest is the “good day” feast of sheep-shearing (see other article posted today).

Also in the day of your gladness, and in your solemn days, and in the beginnings of your months, you shall blow with the trumpets over your burnt offerings, and over the sacrifices of your peace offerings; that they may be to you for a memorial before your God: I am the LORD your God.” (Numbers 10:10)

And David said to Jonathan, Behold, to morrow is the new moon, and I should not fail to sit with the king at meat: but let me go, that I may hide myself in the field to the third day at even. If your father at all miss me, then say, David earnestly asked leave of me that he might run to Bethlehem his city: for there is a yearly sacrifice there for all the family. . . . So David hid himself in the field: and when the new moon was come, the king sat him down to eat meat. And the king sat on his seat, as at other times, even on a seat by the wall: and Jonathan arose, and Abner sat by Saul's side, and David's place was empty. Nevertheless Saul spoke not any thing that day: for he thought, Something has befallen him, he is not clean; surely he is not clean. And it came to pass on the morrow, which was the second day of the month, that David's place was empty:” (I Samuel 20:5-6, 14-17)

So as I read the passage, David and Jonathan could tell when a new moon would appear (likely because they saw the last waning crescent the previous evening). The dark moon was a special annual feast for David's family, the new moon was a feast which began the day count of the new month, and the second day of the month was a final feast day in celebration of the new moon. I am assuming that this annual feast of the dark moon (conjunction) was on the last day of the year in Adar to make a sacrifice of thanksgiving for Yahweh's provision during that year. This was followed by the monthly new moon festival which normally lasted two days because it can take two days from the conjunction (observed as a dark moon) before the sliver of new moon can be seen by the naked eye.

The general consensus of authoritative opinion is that a first sighting of the new moon could occur any time between about 15 and 48 hours after a conjunction. The conjunction being when the earth is between the sun and the moon in perfect alignment. The first sighting of the moon will be after the moon has moved out of this alignment. In sighting the New Moon, one faces the western sky at sunset, drawing an imaginary line from the zenith overhead toward the setting sun, seeking the thin scimitar of light on either side of this imaginary line. The sun sets in the west slightly right of where the new moon will be seen. As the sky darkens the first star is seen which is actually the planet Venus. Gradually the crescent appears as a sliver just above the horizon. The faint New Moon will bulge out to the right, with the horns pointing toward the left. However, in early spring (autumn in southern hemisphere) the “Passover moon” will appear much like a saucer with both horns pointing upward. Variations of this New Moon may be seen in springtime. Biblical months are either 29 or 30 alternating days in length; at times two consecutive 30-day months may occur. Only on the new moon will the moon be invisible until the sun sets. It is as if Yahweh is concealing it so we will intentionally have to look for His sign in the sky.” - Wikipedia (emphasis mine)

The Nisan new moon would appear like a “saucer” awaiting Yahweh to fill the new year with His goodness, and it had to occur on or after the Spring equinox in order for the barley to be ripe for harvest by Passover.
The “saucer” could also represent God's “cup of wrath” (Rev. 14:10; 16:19), and the comet highlighting this year as a year of God's judgment.

More info on viewing Comet C/2011 L4

This site (Sky and Telescope) shows how to find Comet C/2011 L4 during March while looking west at twilight.

Turns out that for a modest 21st century telescope the Messier catalog of 110 objects is a beautiful tour of astronomical objects of all types. The new Moon weekend in March is the only time of the year when all 110 objects may be viewed marathon style, in a single evening.” - Skywatcher of Arizona Flandrau

Skywatcher of Arizona continued:
Jupiter still reigns the night in terms of fun planets to watch though Saturn is rising earlier each evening and will be taking over the evening night sky by the end of March. . . .

March 2013 has a special treat for comet hunters as a “sun grazing” comet is heading into the inner solar system almost perpendicular to the plane of the planets. Comet/2011 L4 PANSTARRS is receiving a lot of hype regarding the potential to become a stunning visible comet, some suggested even in the daytime. The reason these types of comets have the potential for such excitement is two fold. First the pass very near the Sun melting away the ice into a large tail. Second, coming in at a right angle to our orbit means we get a great view of that tail spanning out in the sky. These comets are hard to spot in the outer solar system and typically don't get discovered until they are heading in for a close pass. They tend to be large bodies of material too as the highly inclined comets tend have very long orbits on the order of hundreds of years. Comets Hale-Bopp and Hyakutake were similar sun grazers. The Comet PANSTARRS will pass closest to the Sun (0.3 AU, 28 million miles) on March 9 when it will be visible just after sunset in the northern hemisphere.

The latest reports from the southern hemisphere (as of Jan 31) are that Comet PANSTARRS is still just below visual magnitude. After passing the Sun on March 9th the comet will continue to climb higher in our evening sky through the constellation Andromeda. The tail will likely grow dimmer but also spread out during the month of March.” - Skywatcher of Arizona (Flandrau)

Perseus, the breaker of chains

In Greek mythology, king Cepheus was married to Cassiopeia, and their daughter was Andromeda.  Andromeda is known as the "chained lady" or "chained woman", and has also been called "Perseus's wife" and "Cepheus's daughter". The Greek myth is that queen Cassiopeia offended the sea nymphs by saying her daughter was more beautiful than they were, and Poseidon sent the sea monster Cetus to punish their country. King Cepheus was told he must sacrifice his daughter to Cetus to save his kingdom. So Andromeda was chained to a rock by the sea but was saved by Perseus who BROKE her chains, and used the head of Medusa to turn the sea monster into stone. Algol (β Persei), the "Demon Star", marks the head of Medusa. Perseus and Andromeda then married; the myth recounts that the couple had seven children together and founded a Greek dynasty.
In Babylonian religion, the stars of Andromeda and Pisces made up the “Lady of the Heavens” which Israel worshipped as the “queen of heaven” (Jeremiah 44:17-25) for a season.

It's interesting that in January 2013 the comet was in the southern crown, and by October it will be in the northern crown: “King of kings”.


Judah married his firstborn to Tamar, but God slew him because he was wicked. Judah's second born, Onan, refused to produce a son with Tamar for his brother; so God slew him too. Judah denied the wickedness of his own sons and blamed Tamar for their deaths, and so deceifully refused to let her marry his third son. Judah's wife died, and Tamar used the frivolity during sheep shearing to obtain a child in Genesis 38:12-30.

And it came to pass, when she travailed, that the one put out his hand: and the midwife took and bound on his hand a scarlet thread, saying, This came out first. And it came to pass, as he drew back his hand, that, behold, his brother came out: and she said, How have you broken forth? this breach be on you: therefore his name was called Pharez. And afterward came out his brother, that had the scarlet thread on his hand: and his name was called Zarah.” (Genesis 38:28-30)

Pharez is pehrets in Hebrew, meaning to break forth, breach, or gap.

Yahweh did not approve of the way Judah raised his sons, so he found a woman, Tamar, who could raise a godly son, Pharaez. Pharez was the son of Judah and Tamar through whom Messiah came. When the marriage of Boaz and Ruth was celebrated, the people of Bethlehem said, “And let your house be like the house of Pharez, whom Tamar bore to Judah, of the seed which the LORD shall give you of this young woman.” (Ruth 4:12)

The Path of Comet C/2011 L4 after the Passover New Moon

March 15-24, 2013, comet C/2011 L4 will pass through Pisces beneath Pegasus. President Obama is likely to arrive in Israel during that time, and he will likely try to keep Israel from building on its land.
March 25-April 11, comet C/2011 L4 will pass through Andromeda.
April 12-17, comet C/2011 L4 will pass beneath Perseus.
April 18-19, comet C/2011 L4 will pass through Cassiopeia.
In May comet C/2011 L4 will pass over Cepheus.
In early June comet C/2011 L4 will pass through the seven stars of Ursa Minor (“little bear”) or little dipper or little dog whose tail points north.
In July comet C/2011 L4 will pass through Draco, the dragon.
In August to mid-September comet C/2011 L4 will pass through Bootes.
In October comet C/2011 L4 will pass through the seven stars of Corona Borealis (“northern crown”).
By mid-November comet C/2011 L4 will begin its year long journey circling Hercules.

Possible Interpretations

I interpret the sign of Comet C/2011 L4 visible on Nisan 1 between Aquarius (who pours out water) and Cetus (sea monster sent to destroy a country) as possible devastation of islands and coastlines this year. The comet will pass through Pisces during equinox and Passover likely, which I think signifies how Yeshua's Bride has returned to celebration of the LORD's feasts together in fulfillment of Malachi 4:5-6:
Behold, I will send you Elijah the prophet before the coming of the great and dreadful day of the LORD: And he shall turn the heart of the fathers to the children, and the heart of the children to their fathers, lest I come and smite the earth with a curse.”

But right after Passover I expect more extreme persecution of Jews and Christians as the comet passes through Andromeda. I think this will be followed by a major Muslim victory (April 18-19); possibly the establishment of Sharia law in Egypt, or even the declaration of a new world-wide caliphate. Because in Persia, Cassiopeia was drawn by al-Sufi as a queen holding a staff with a crescent moon in her right hand.
In May, “king” Obama might show his true intent and declare Israel must be sacrificed for the good of the world. This may result in God sending one of the seven trumpets or plagues upon the earth in June. And Satan may increase demonic activity in July.

In Chinese astrology the star Arcturus in Bootes was designated as the celestial king's throne (Tian Wang) or the Blue Dragon's horn (Daijiao); but the name Daijiao, translates to "great horn". So from August to mid-September I would expect more outright worship of Obama. Our Lord's response might be one of the seven trumpets or plagues in October.

Hercules crushes Draco beneath his feet, so I hope that means Yeshua returns to reign on earth in 2014.

I am not prophesying! These are just my interpretations of the signs coming in the sky.

Israel will build on its own God-given land and continue to be attacked

Enlarge the place of your tent, and let them stretch forth the curtains of your habitations: spare not, lengthen your cords, and strengthen your stakes; For you shall break forth on the right hand and on the left; and your seed shall inherit the Gentiles, and make the desolate cities to be inhabited. Fear not; for you shall not be ashamed: neither be you confounded; for you shall not be put to shame: for you shall forget the shame of your youth, and shall not remember the reproach of your widowhood any more. For your Maker is your husband; the LORD of hosts is his name; and your Redeemer the Holy One of Israel; The God of the whole earth shall he be called. For the LORD has called you as a woman forsaken and grieved in spirit, and a wife of youth, when you were refused, said your God. For a small moment have I forsaken you; but with great mercies will I gather you. In a little wrath I hid my face from you for a moment; but with everlasting kindness will I have mercy on you, said the LORD your Redeemer. . . . In righteousness shall you be established: you shall be far from oppression; for you shall not fear: and from terror; for it shall not come near you. Behold, they shall surely gather together, but not by me: whoever shall gather together against you shall fall for your sake. Behold, I have created the smith that blows the coals in the fire, and that brings forth an instrument for his work; and I have created the waster to destroy. No weapon that is formed against you shall prosper; and every tongue that shall rise against you in judgment you shall condemn. This is the heritage of the servants of the LORD, and their righteousness is of me, said the LORD.” (Isaiah 54:2-8, 14-17)

Feast of First Fleece

Festival of Sheep Shearing on last day of Adar

The first fruit also of your corn, of your wine, and of your oil, and the first of the fleece of your sheep, shall you give him.” (Deut. 18:4)

Festivals were created around these first fruit offerings. The festival for sheep shearing was held toward the end of the year in Adar.

". . . as is almost universal in a rural economy sheep-shearing was de rigueur the occasion for a good time, it was the Yom Tob of feasting and hilarity. Furthermore, it took place in those parts somewhere about March/April and thus more or less at the time of the Spring Equinox, generally the juncture for reckoning the New Year." (Wright, G.R.H., "Dumuzi at the Court of David," in As on the First Day: Essays in Religious Constants, Leiden, 1987, p. 53)

The Spring Equinox gives the most daylight for sheep-shearing. On our calendars it is usually March 20th. The full moon after it is Passover (Nisan 14).


And there was a man in Maon, whose possessions were in Carmel; and the man was very great, and he had three thousand sheep, and a thousand goats: and he was shearing his sheep in Carmel. . . . And now I have heard that you have shearers: now your shepherds which were with us, we hurt them not, neither was there ought missing to them, all the while they were in Carmel. Ask your young men, and they will show you. Why let the young men find favor in your eyes: for we come in a good day [tob yom]: give, I pray you, whatever comes to your hand to your servants, and to your son David.” (I Samuel 25:2-8)

David and his men protected the shearers while they were processing thousands of animals in Carmel (in Judah, not near Mt. Carmel). They asked for food on the “good day” of the festival. I suggest that day was the dark moon which ended the year on the last day of Adar based upon I Samuel 20. It was an annual celebration for families of sheep herders (I Samuel 20:6).

The festival of sheep shearing was one of imbibing which often led to drunkeness, deceit, and infidelity. Jacob used the time of sheep shearing to escape from Laban (Gen. 31:17-22). David used it to escape from king Saul (I Samuel 20). Absalom lured Amnon to the sheep shearing to kill him for raping his sister, named Tamar (II Samuel 13:23). Judah used the festival to justify having sex with a “harlot” who turned out to be his daughter-in-law, Tamar (Genesis 38:12-16). 


Judah was born in 1771 BC in Harran in PadanAram, and helped Jacob tend Laban's flocks and herds. Jacob's daughter Dinah was born in 1754 BC, and Joseph was born in 1745 BC; so being almost 20 years older than them, he likely felt protective of his younger siblings. Jacob and his family escaped south to Canaan during sheep shearing in 1742 BC, and dwelt near Shechem (Gen. 33:18) and bought a field from Hamor. Maybe a year or so goes by before Dinah is raped by a son of Hamor who begs his father to get her as his bride. Jacob tells them he can accept the marriage if his village circumcizes all their men. Judah's older brothers, Simeon and Levi, took vengeance for the defilement of their sister by killing all the males of Shechem as they were healing.

Simeon and Levi, Dinah's brothers, took each man his sword, and came on the city boldly, and slew all the males. And they slew Hamor and Shechem his son with the edge of the sword, and took Dinah out of Shechem's house, and went out. The sons of Jacob came on the slain, and spoiled the city, because they had defiled their sister. They took their sheep, and their oxen, and their asses, and that which was in the city, and that which was in the field, And all their wealth, and all their little ones, and their wives took they captive, and spoiled even all that was in the house. And Jacob said to Simeon and Levi, You have troubled me to make me to stink among the inhabitants of the land, among the Canaanites and the Perizzites: and I being few in number, they shall gather themselves together against me, and slay me; and I shall be destroyed, I and my house. And they said, Should he deal with our sister as with an harlot?” (Genesis 34:25-31)

Though Simeon and Levi did the killing, all of the sons of Jacob partook in the spoil (according to most commentaries), and some unwisely obtained Canaanite wives. Jacob told his sons to give him all the idols they had taken, and he buried them in Shechem; and they all moved to Luz outside of (Jeru)Shalem and made an altar at elBethel (the house of God) where God kept them safe, not letting any retaliation take place (Genesis 35:1-7).

Joseph was sold into slavery in 1745 BC, and it is recounted in Genesis 37. Jacob and all his family of 66 persons, including the two sons of Pharez (Gen. 46:8-12), moved to Egypt in 1706 BC. Therefore the account of Judah and Tamar producing their son Pharez in Genesis 38:12-30 likely occurred after Joseph was sold, but Genesis 38:1-10 occurred prior. Genesis 38:1-11 gives the backstory of Judah taking a Canaanite wife (from the spoil?), and having three sons with her. Judah married his firstborn to Tamar, but God slew him because he was wicked. Judah's second born, Onan, refused to produce a son with Tamar for his brother; so God slew him too. Judah denied the wickedness of his own sons and blamed Tamar for their deaths, and so deceifully refused to let her marry his third son. Judah's wife died, and then we proceed to the ruse of Tamar during sheep shearing to obtain a child in Genesis 38:12-30.

And it was told Tamar, saying, Behold your father in law goes up to Timnath to shear his sheep. And she put her widow's garments off from her, and covered her with a veil, and wrapped herself, and sat in an open place, which is by the way to Timnath; for she saw that Shelah was grown, and she was not given to him to wife. When Judah saw her, he thought her to be an harlot; because she had covered her face. And he turned to her by the way, and said, Go to, I pray you, let me come in to you; (for he knew not that she was his daughter in law.)” (Genesis 38:13-16)

Timnath is the ruins of Timneh northeast of Abdullam. Three months later when Judah found out Tamar was pregnant, though she was engaged to his son, he sentenced her to be burned (Gen. 38:24). She then showed Judah the signet ring and staff he left with her, and he realized the child was his. Judah helped spoil the town of Shechem for treating his sister like a harlot, and now he had been caught using his own daughter-in-law as a harlot. But Judah repented, and he never had sexual relations with Tamar again (Gen. 38:26).